• Determine means by which cardiomyocyte patterning could facilitate the cell maturation processes following cardiac differentiation. Currently hiPSC-CMs represent an immature cell state, but proper patterning at proper aspect ratios may facilitate increased cell contractility, enhanced electrophysiology, and aligned sarcomeres associated with mature cardiac tissues.
  • Determine methods by which endothelial cells can be properly patterned to generate complex networks of new vasculature that could potentially be “printed” to restore vascular function following cardiac damage.
  • As we engineer an entire myocardium, directing cells to their appropriate and specific spatial locations (ie atrial CMs, ventricular CMs, Purkinje fibers, etc.) will become increasingly important. Although 3D printing may assist in this spatial location process, other more complex strategies are needed to solve this problem.

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